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Abstract


MACHIAVELLI, BENEFIT, INTEREST AND CONSERVATION OF STATE IN THE EARLY MODERN PERIOD

The Italian Wars, starting with the French entry into Italy in 1494, not only affected the fate of the Apennine Peninsula; but also it caused important breaks in issues like state and state government to protect their state and territory. The fact that many regions in the Italian geography are in desperate straits against foreign hegemony and entirely under their control has captured the attention of many Italian writers, resulting in the emergence of ideas about how Italians should defend themselves against foreigners. Without any doubt, most shocking of these ideas were suggested by the Florentine statesman Niccolo Machiavelli with his work called The Prince. The Florentine writer opposed the traditional ruler and the idea of the state by paying attention to the interests such as benefit and expedience in his work titled The Prince, which does not abide by any religious, moral, or ethical thoughts, unlike its counterparts. In the same way as Machiavelli, another Florentine writer Francesco Guicciardini highlighted that the state should first consider its interests and expedience by sharing same ideas with the Florentine writer. Within time these ideas of both Florentine writers gave rise to great polemical issue in Europe and later on, names such as Giovanni della Casa, Giralomo Frachetta, Giovanni Botero and Paolo Rosello participating in that discussion tried to bring up the opposite views against their arguments.



Keywords
State, Utility, Reason, Machiavelli, Conservation of State



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