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Abstract


A genetic and anthropogenetic overview of pandemies from the past to present

Infectious diseases have become a universal problem in the globalizing world as a result of rapid displacement and frequent travels for commercial, economic, industrial, cultural and educational reasons. When the epidemiological data of the past are analyzed, it can be seen that in addition to the emergence of new diseases, some old diseases may also recur. This emerging picture makes it difficult for healthcare systems to respond in a timely manner in case of a possible pandemic worldwide Various infectious agents can lead to epidemics with different transmission routes. The pandemic,  which affects more than one country in the world and is widely spread, is in the fields of genetics and anthropogenetics. Ancient DNA studies are of great importance in researching anthropogenetic diseases from past periods. Viral and bacterial genomes obtained from past materials provide information about pandemic diseases. Comparative analysis of viral genomes allows broad and detailed perspectives on evolutionary processes. It enables nucleotide sequences to be studied meticulously from older archaeological and paleontological samples in new generation sequencing and ancient DNA (aDNA) recovery, and enables the development of new methods of diagnosis and treatment. On the other hand, genetic-based mitochondrial DNA analysis, haplogroups, Y chromosome studies can be linked with the determination of migration routes, and the interaction of populations with each other.

In this study, epidemic diseases that have been defined as pandemics from past to present have been addressed, and the factors affecting the spread, the relationships between diseases and genetic structures have been discussed.



Keywords
Pandemic, anthropogenetics, ancient dna, genetics



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