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President Andrew Johnson, who took over Abraham Lincoln's efforts to abolish slavery, completed his task, Reconstruction policies began in 1865, and Thirteenth Amendment was added to the U.S. Constitution. However, southern states, which aimed to reinstall slavery, enacted Black Codes. Codes restricted the rights of freedmen and kept African Americans dependant to the white supremacy and prohibited free blacks from owning private premises, serving in military, voting at the elections, etc. Some states had more codes that are humane while others strictly controlled black population for fear of their revenge. Black codes began with Mississippi to prevent blacks from gaining power, in many cases charged fines, and hired free blacks as free labour. Black codes classified under four headings were Civil Right, Vagrancy, Apprentice and Penal Laws. Jim Crow laws were enacted ‘n 1890s until 1965. Instead of restrictions of codes, Jim Crow laws implemented racial discrimination, prohibited mixing of whites, and coloured ones. It was continuation of black codes and aimed to broaden it. Jim Crow laws separated public facilities of whites and blacks, and used provided worse facilities to coloured people. Thus avoided interracial mixing and caused a hatred and segregation between races legally, furthermore blacks were treated same as pets and were forbidden to enter some facilities. Today, traces of segregation still show its effects. Centennial conflict almost encoded in their DNAs. This paper argues Black Codes and Jim Crow Laws, which left its mark on the history of United States.

Black Codes, Jim Crow Laws, Nineteenth Century’s America , African American, Freedom


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